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This vocabulary has been prepared for use in connection with my "Practical Malay Grammar. The list of words which is here offered to the public contains over six thousand words and phrases. In such a list it is of course impossible to include all the Malay words which may be met with in even a very limited range of Malay reading, and the student will no doubt meet with some expressions in conversation with Malays which will not be found in this vocabulary.

Great care, however, has been taken in the selection of the words, and it is hoped that very few which are in common use or are likely to be needed by the student in the first two or three years of his study of the language have been omitted. In this vocabulary, as in the "Practical Malay Grammar," the Malay words are printed in roman letters only. Comparatively few Europeans make any serious attempt to learn the Arabic character, and those who do will no doubt require a dictionary rather than a vocabulary. The omission of the Arabic characters has enabled the printers to put out this work in a very compact form and at a cost considerably below what it would otherwise have been.

The great defect of Malay vocabularies printed in the Roman character has always been the difficulty of finding many of the words owing to variations of spelling. This has been particularly the case in regard to Dirty free Jerusalem sex chatting romanization of the short vowel sound, which even in the same work has been represented by different letters in different words, according to the derivation of the word or the fancy of the author, so that in many cases the student has had to hunt for a word in two or three different places before he has been able to find it.

This difficulty has been obviated in this work by the adoption of the same system of romanization which has been used in my Grammar and in all the other Malay publications of the Methodist Publishing House.

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Its peculiar feature is the entire omission of the short vowel. This makes it just as easy to find a word containing the short vowel as it is in a Malay dictionary printed in the Arabic character, for instead of having to look up such a word as nschaya or psaka under two or three different vowels, the student will be able to find it at once from the sound. It is believed that this will be found to be a very great advantage.

The introduction should be carefully studied by those who desire to make an intelligent use of this vocabulary. Part of the introduction has been reproduced from the Grammar, but there will also be found a large amount of entirely new matter explaining the use of prefixes and suffixes, the accentuation of Malay words, and the use and pronunciation of foreign words, etc.

The student should not fail to make the fullest use of the Grammar, not only on of the importance of thoroughly understanding the grammatical construction of the language, but also because he will otherwise be unable to profit by the frequent references made in the vocabulary to the s of the paragraphs in the Grammar, where fuller information will be found in regard to the use of certain words than could be given in a vocabulary. Derived words will only be found under their roots.

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Owing to the immense and variety of the derived forms in the Malay language, this is the only arrangement which is at all satisfactory, and has been adopted in all dictionaries and in one or two vocabularies. At first the student will no doubt have some difficulty in finding out what is the root of some of the derivatives, and it will be necessary for him to make himself thoroughly acquainted with the use of prefixes and affixes; this, however, will be found to be a blessing in disguise, for it is impossible to read or speak the Malay language intelligently without a thorough understanding of the derived forms.

An appendix containing lists of English words with their Malay equivalents has been added. The vocabulary itself contains many similar lists; for instance a list of the different classes of workmen will be found under tukanga list of the classifiers or numeral coefficients under s-cloths under kainstones under batuetc.

The lists of nautical terms and diseases should be of special use to sailors and doctors respectively, and housekeepers will find a very complete list of foods and household terms. When in doubt as to the precise meaning of a word I have occasionally Dirty free Jerusalem sex chatting to Wilkinson's Dictionary, Part I, but as the second part has not yet been published this work has only been referred to in regard to such words as come in the first half of the Malay alphabet.

My list of words has been compared with other vocabularies in order to ensure that no important word has been omitted.

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Several alterations and additions have been made at the suggestion of Dr. Luering, and my thanks are due to him for the valuable assistance which he has rendered me by reading and criticising the manuscript to publication. The demand for a new edition of this vocabulary has enabled me to correct a few errors which crept into the first edition, and to add a of words which, though not in frequent use, are liable to be met with by the student. An attempt has also been made in this edition to indicate words- which are peculiar to the Malay spoken by the "Babas," or Straits-born Chinese, and some of their differences of pronunciation.

The difference between Baba Malay, and the language as it is spoken by the Malays themselves, consists, however, not merely in such variations as can be shown in a vocabulary.

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There is a radical difference in the structure of the sentences. For the most part the same words are used, but the idiom is different, and would require a more thorough elucidation than could be given in the introduction to a vocabulary.

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It is hoped, however, that the Baba Malay words here given, marked B. In open syllables these vowel sounds have always a greater degree of intensity than in closed syllables. In addition to the above there is in Malay, as in nearly all Orien- tal languages, another simple vowel sound which is often called the short vowel sound. In the different systems of romanizing, this short vowel sound has been variously represented by a, a, e, e, i, i, u.

Experience has shown that the best way to spell words contain- ing the short vowel with a view to helping the student to a correct pronunciation, is to omit the vowel altogether, and it is believed that the omission of the vowel will obviate the difficulty of finding such words in the vocabulary. The exact sound of the short vowel should be learnt if possible from a Malay; it is almost identical with the half-vowel sound in the first syllable of such words as " machine " and " balloon.

When two vowels come together, both must be sounded, but the first must be run into the second; thus au has very nearly the sound of ow in "cow," as pisau, man; and oi has almost the sound of the English i in "ice," as, sunjai, pakai. The consonants in Malay are pronounced as in English, except that the r should always be sounded much more Dirty free Jerusalem sex chatting and with more of a riig than in English.

The consonant ry represents a single sound in Malay, and should be pronounced like the ng in " singer," never as in " single ;" the latter sound is represented in Malay by njg; thus the two sounds are found in the words: si-nja and sirg-gah.

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The apostrophe at the end of a syllable indicates a similar abrupt sound. Final h has also the effect of shortening the last syllable, but not more than half as much as final Jc. The nasal letter 'am c.

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Such words are given in the vocabulary under both letters in order to make it easy for the student to find them; thus idhin will also be found under izin, and thalatha, under salasa. As already stated, the inverted comma represents the Arabic nasal letter ' ain.

It is placed before the vowel which has the nasal sound, as in the words ' alam, 'ilmu, m'alim, do'a. The apostrophe represents the Arabic -hamzahboth at the end of a word as described above and also in the middle of a word between two vowels, where it indicates that the vowels must be pro- nounced separately ; this is also the case where the short vowel sound is followed by another vowel, as in the words s'isi, k'atas, t'akanthe hamzah being used in such cases in the Malay character.

The apostrophe is Dirty free Jerusalem sex chatting used to indicate an initial short vowel before the consonants m and nas in the words ' mas, 'ntah, 'ngganetc. The hyphen is used in this Vocabulary to show the division of the words into syllables, except where the division is marked by an apostrophe or an inverted comma or by the mark ' which shows where the accent falls, as described below.

In ordinary writing the hyphen should only be used where a word is reduplicated, or to separate from the words to which they are attached those prefixes, suffixes and other particles which do not form an integral part of the word itself; these are: the preposition k. The preposition di is.

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Words which are followed by numerals in parentheses are re- ferred to in the " Practical Malay Grammar " in the paragraphs of which the s are given, where in every case some Further explanation of such words will be found. By this means the Voca- bulary becomes to some extent an index to the Grammar, and in regard to the use of certain words the student is enabled to obtain a large amount of information which could not possibly be looked for in a Vocabulary.

In Dirty free Jerusalem sex chatting Malay language a very large of words are derived from root words by the addition of prefixes or suffixes. Sometimes several prefixes and suffixes are attached to the same word, and there is so much variety in their use that it would be extremely cumbersome to insert all such derived words in alphabetical order as separate words. The plan which is followed in this vocabulary is that which has been adopted in all Malay dictionaries, namely to put all derived words under the head of the roots from which they are derived.

Some prefixes and suffixes are only used to form nouns, and others are used with verbs. The former are :. In this vocabulary the derivatives will be found in the follow- ing order: 1 compound words and phrases formed with the simple root in combination with other words; 2 the verbal derivatives; 3 derived nouns.

Only those derivatives are given which are in ordinary use; the fact that any particular derived form is not found in the vocabulary must not be taken as an indication that it cannot be used. Where the prefix ber is thus given it may be taken to indicate that the verb is in transitive, and where the prefix is m that the verb is transitive ; in the latter case one of the suffixes Jean or i is sometimes given to show which of these forms is Dirty free Jerusalem sex chatting commonly used; in some cases either may be used.

Some roots may be used either transitively or intran- sitively, in which case the derivatives with ber and m are both given. It must be understood that the prefix m can always be used with deri- vative verbs formed with the suffix Jean or i; this being the case it has not been thought necessary to give the derivative formed with m as a distinct form of the word. In derived words formed with the prefixes ber, ter, per, di- and Jc, the first syllable of the root undergoes no change, and the word can therefore usually be discovered without any difficulty, but with the prefixes m and p the root in many cases changes its form.

A refer- ence to the following list of changes will usually enable the student to decide what the root is : If the root commences with. The chief difficulty in discovering the root arises when the root commences with p, t, or Jc, from the fact that when the initial letter has been elided there is no means of knowing what that letter may have been; thus the root of m,mutus might be either mutus or putus, and that of mnaroh and mrgararg might be either naroh or taroli, or kararg or ararg respectively.

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When in doubt the student must look for both forms. Thus with derivatives commencing with mry, the root should first be sought for under the more common letter s and then under cli, those commencing with mn should be looked for first under t and then under n, those commencing mm under p or m, and those commencing mrg under Jc or under the vowel which follows the mrg.

Similarly of course with derivatives formed with p in its various forms. The Malays have a remarkable aptitude for adopting foreign words, which in most cases become assimilated to the Malay style of pronunciation, the spelling being sometimes changed to suit the new pronunciation.

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It is important that the student should know the source from which such foreign words have come, in order that he may be able to discriminate between synonymous words and decide which should be used in conversation with the various nationalities ly whom Malay is spoken.

Thus one would not hesitate to use words of Chinese origin in speaking with the Baba Chinese, or to use Javanese words in conversation with persons who come from the Dutch Indies, whereas one should avoid words of Arabic or Persian origin except when speaking with educated Malays. It should be remembered, however, that some foreign words have become so thoroughly incor- porated in the language as to be well understood by all, as for instance such words as waktii, 'umor, smoa, burni, fikir, fakat, etc.

Malay lexicographers have usually romanized words of foreign origin in harmony with the spelling of the language from which such words are derived rather than with the way in which they are pro- nounced by Malays.

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This plan of having a different system for roman- izing foreign words causes great confusion in a vocabulary and has been avoided as far as possible in this work. Such words will be found spelt phonetically according to the Malay pronunciation. Thus Sanskrit and Arabic words which are pronounced by Malays with the short vowel sound are so spelt in this vocabulary, whereas most lexi- cographers who use c for the short vowel have spelt such words with a, i, or u, as tanira, nixcJwya.

The former arrangement, though perhaps scienti- fically correct, presents such unnecessary difficulties to the unsophistic- ated mind that a consistent system of phonetic spelling appears pre- ferable. In order that one may pronounce correctly, it is just as important to know on which syllable the stress should be laid as it is to have every word spelt phonetically. A novel feature of this vocabulary is that the stress on each word is shown by means of an accent, in the same way as is done in Webster's Dictionary.

Chapter 11

It will be noticed that in root words the accent usually falls on the penultimate. When the vowel of the penultimate is short, however, the accent very fre- quently falls on the last syllable. In some two-syllable words there is an almost equal stress on the two syllables, and in such cases the accent depends a great deal upon the position of the word in the sen- tence. For instance when the words tiarg, lurun or tahan come at the end of a sentence the accent falls on the last syllable, but when placed elsewhere in the sentence there is some uncertainty as to the accent, though it generally seems to be on the penultimate.

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