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BIBX was an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor under clinical investigation for treatment of cancer. This candidate possessed an attractive preclinical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion profile, yet failed in clinical studies due in part to poor oral exposure, resulting from extensive metabolism by aldehyde oxidase AO. In vitro metabolism studies were performed in liver cytosol and cryopreserved hepatocytes from multiple species. In addition, a pharmacokinetic study was performed in cynomolgus monkey for comparison with the reported human pharmacokinetics of BIBX Thus, it appears that cynomolgus monkey represents a suitable surrogate for the observed human AO metabolism of BIBX To circumvent clinical failures due to uncharacterized metabolism by AO, in vitro studies in the appropriate subcellular fraction, followed by pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic studies in the appropriately characterized surrogate species should be conducted for substrates of AO.
Posted April 8, Reviewed by Matt Huston. The island of Cayo Santiago off the east coast of Puerto Rico is home to an unusual Pool monkey sex of rhesus macaques. The Old World monkeys were originally brought there in to create a place in the western hemisphere for scientists to study these animals in a naturalistic environment.
The island now supports around 1, free-ranging rhesus monkeys. But during their data collection, Arre and Horschler noticed an interesting phenomenon: On hot days, juvenile macaques played together in a water hole. Soon, Arre was taking photos and videos of the aquatic play each time she observed it. When the journal Behaviour put out a call for anecdotes in animal behaviorshe and Horschler knew they had to share their observations. In their report, Arre and Horschler describe social play, including swimming and diving, in juvenile monkeys.
The researchers observed groups of young macaques gather around a shallow pool surrounded by vegetation and climb the adjacent trees, generally pausing three to seven meters above the water. Interestingly, the monkeys appeared to take turns jumping into the water. And they would sometimes push each other in the branches above the water.
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But there are less generous interpretations, too. These behaviors were accompanied by play als, such as specific facial expressions and body postures. Once in the water, the monkeys exhibited play behaviors including gamboling towards one another and wrestling, chasing, slapping, and cuddling.
Arre and Horschler noted that the participants were primarily young macaques between the ages of 1 and 5 — a period between weaning and reaching sexual maturity. In addition, most of the participants were male. Arre says that is one aspect she wants to follow up on, to see if it reflects a real pattern or is just an artifact of their opportunistic data collection.
Arre and Horschler propose that these water-loving monkeys present a unique opportunity to investigate questions about the functions of social play and the similarities and differences in play between human children and other animals.
research on play in humans and non-human animals suggests that it can facilitate social interaction and influence social development.
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Another aspect of aquatic play that Arre is interested in pursuing involves following individuals as they grow to see how early-life play may affect later social outcomes. Arre was also intrigued by another behavior: A single monkey diving into the pool while others watched. If there is turn-taking happening, is the pushing involved in that?
Future studies of these monkeys could reveal more about the functions of social play in primates, including humans. Alyssa M. Arre and Daniel J. Swimming and diving as social play in juvenile rhesus macaques Macaca mulatta.
Behaviour Mary Bates, Ph. Worry is driven by mood, not logic.
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Mary Bates Ph. Animal Minds. The study of play has serious implications for social development.
The video was reportedly shot in a resort in mahabaleshwar in maharashtra, one of the several states in india under lockdown.
Key points Rhesus monkeys on the island of Cayo Santiago engage in aquatic play, including swimming and diving. Observations collected on the island suggest it is mostly juveniles, and primarily males, that participate in aquatic play. Researchers say this phenomenon offers the potential to learn more about the functions and consequences of social play—in these primates and in humans. Monkeys wrestling in branches above the water and displaying play faces and postures.
References Alyssa M. About the Author.
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